What does it mean to have a Metabolic Syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that, when combined, significantly increase the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Studies have reported that in urban Indian populations, age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be overall approximately 25% (approximately 31% in women and 18.5% in men). According to the IDF, the most common combinations of metabolic syndrome criteria in Indian population were those involving diabetes along with hypertension and high waist circumference. Metabolic Syndrome accelerates both macro and microvascular complications of diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome is said to be present if three or more of the following conditions are met:
- Abdominal obesity: Excess fat around the waistline, also known as central or visceral obesity. Waistline of greater than 35 inches for females or 40 inches for males is categorized as abdominal obesity.
- High blood pressure: Elevated blood pressure levels, typically above 130/85 mmHg.
- High blood sugar: Fasting blood glucose levels greater than or equal to a blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL, indicating insulin resistance or prediabetes.
- Abnormal cholesterol levels: High triglycerides (Greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL) and low HDL cholesterol levels (less than 50 mg/dL for females or 40 mg/dL for males), along with elevated LDL cholesterol (over 129mg/dL for females and males).
Causes and Risk Factors:
Several factors contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, including:
- Age: Metabolic syndrome increases with age.
- Obesity: Being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome.
- Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of physical activity and prolonged periods of sitting or inactivity.
- Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, refined sugars, saturated fats, and low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Genetics: Family history of metabolic disorders can increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
- Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes, such as insulin resistance and imbalances in adipokines, contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome.
- Gestational diabetes: At the time of pregnancy, if you had diabetes, which is called gestational diabetes you are more likely to have metabolic syndrome.
- Other disease: If you had non-alcoholic fatty liver or PCOD, risk of metabolic syndrome is high.
What Are the Complications of Metabolic Syndrome?
If metabolic syndrome is not managed, it can increase your risk of developing serious health problems, including:
- Heart disease: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for heart disease.
- Stroke: Metabolic syndrome is also a major risk factor for stroke.
- Diabetes Type 2 diabetes: People with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.
- Kidney disease: Metabolic syndrome can increase your risk of developing kidney disease.
- Sleep Apnea: People with metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop sleep apnea.
How Is Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosed?
- Your doctor can diagnose metabolic syndrome by measuring your waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol.
Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome:
While metabolic syndrome can be a serious health concern, the good news is that it is largely preventable and manageable. Here are some effective strategies:
- Losing Weight: Losing excess weight, particularly abdominal fat, through a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity is key to preventing and managing metabolic syndrome.
- Adopt a balanced diet: Focus on a well-rounded diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Limit processed foods, sugary beverages, and saturated fats.
- Regular exercise: Engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercises such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing for at least 150 minutes per week. Incorporate strength training exercises to build muscle mass and improve insulin sensitivity.
- Monitor blood pressure and cholesterol levels: Regularly check your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and work with your Doctor to manage them within a healthy range.
- Manage stress: Chronic stress can contribute to metabolic syndrome. Implement stress management techniques like meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, or engaging in hobbies you enjoy.
- Quit smoking and limit alcohol consumption: Smoking and excessive alcohol intake can worsen the symptoms of metabolic syndrome and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Quitting smoking and moderating alcohol consumption are important steps toward improving overall health.
If lifestyle changes are not enough to manage your metabolic syndrome, your doctor may prescribe medication. Some of the medications that can be used to treat metabolic syndrome include Metformin, Statins and Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.