It causes involvement of the eye in terms of retinopathy which can cause blindness, early onset of glaucoma or cataracts.
Diabetic retinopathy of the proliferative type, glaucoma and premature Senile cataract are all detrimental to the vision of a diabetes with poor control.
Diabetic retinopathy is a highly specific vascular complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with prevalence strongly related to both duration of diabetes and the level of glycemic control.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent cause of new cases of blindness In the age group 20 -74 years.
In addition to diabetes durations factors that increase the risk of, /or are associated with, retinopathy include chronic hyperglycemia, nephropathy, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
Intensive Diabetes management with the goal of achieving near normoglycemia has been shown in to prevent and or delay the onset of progression of diabetic retinopathy and potentially improve patients reported visual functions.
Adults a type 1 or type 2 diabetes should be having initial dilated and comprehensive eye examination by an ophthalmologist at the time of diagnosis.
If there’s no evidence of retinopathy on one or more annual examination and the glycemia is well controlled then screening is done every year.
If there is any evidence of retinopathy, it may be done every six months.
Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes who are planning pregnancy or who are pregnant should be counseled on the risk of development and progression of Retinopathy.
Eye examination should occur before pregnancy or in the first trimester in patients with pre-existing type one or type two diabetes, and then patient should be monitored every trimester and for one year postpartum as indicated by the degree of retinopathy.
Patient with diabetic retinopathy should not undertake strenuous or heavy Aerobic, resistance training or weight training exercises as it may be leading to aggravation and worsening of retinopathy status.