Normally, blood has a certain level of sugar in it. This range may vary in one’s life due to many external and internal factors. Insulin is the hormone responsible for the maintenance of glucose levels in the body and fluctuations in blood sugar might disturb the insulin production directly or indirectly.
A decrease in the production of insulin, and resistance of cells towards insulin are the causes of type 1 and 2 diabetes, in adults, respectively. However, adults in the 40s and above are more vulnerable to this condition.
Genetic makeup of a person, too, can be the reason of getting diabetes. That’s why South Asians are more likely to get diabetes.
In this article, you will go through the figures of blood glucose range and tests for diabetes in different circumstances for example after fasting, pregnancy, etc.
What is the ideal range of glucose in blood?
A normal glucose range in blood is 70-99mg of sugar per deciliter of blood volume after fasting (for 7-8 hours). Listed below are blood glucose assessments showing the blood glucose levels in different cases.
The American Diabetes Association(ADA) has published the following figures.
Figures after fasting
A report of fasting blood glucose test for a normal person indicates a sugar level of 70-99mg/dl.
Value between 100 and 125 indicates prediabetic condition and a number higher than 125 indicates diabetes.
Figures after taking meal
A person who does not have diabetes has a sugar value of less than 140mg/dl in the blood, while a person with diabetes has a value of less than 180 mg/dl after 1-2 hours of refreshment.
However, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists(AACE) has prescribed slightly stricter target ranges of sugar values.
Necessary assessments in pregnancy
During pregnancy, the levels of many hormones change substantially. The results of a study using a glucose tolerance test showed that blood glucose can also change drastically during pregnancy. If your blood glucose level is higher than 140 mg/dL after the one-hour test, your doctor will recommend the three-hour test. If your blood glucose level is higher than 190 mg/dL after the one-hour test, you’ll be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
In addition, gestational diabetes may develop in pregnant women and may go away after birth. Its results may vary too.
Tests for diabetes
There are four commonly used tests for diabetes namely;
- Glycated hemoglobin A1C test: An A1C test result below 5.7% means that the person is healthy; 5.7-6.4% means that person has prediabetes and higher than 6.5% means that person has diabetes.
- Glucose tolerance test: In this method, you drink a glucose solution and then take blood samples at different time intervals. Glucose level upto 140 mg/dl is normal, upto 199 indicates that the person has prediabetes and more than 199 mg/dl indicates that the person has diabetes.
- Fasting blood glucose test: It measures precise glucose values than others and requires an overnight fasting. Sugar level between 70 and 99mg/dl is considered normal, between 100 and 125mg/dl indicates that person has prediabetes and higher than 125 mg/dl indicates that person has diabetes.
- Random blood glucose test: This test can be taken at any time regardless of taking meals. A blood sugar level of 200mg/dl or higher indicates that mean that the person has diabetes.
The ADA suggests that people above 45 should go through a blood sugar screening and a normal person should have a blood test every three years. Former gestational patients should follow the same frequency. A person with prediabetes should take a blood test every year.
Testing at home
Glucometer is the device usually used for testing at homes. It uses a drop of blood from a fingertip and then measures the glucose level in the blood. Using Oxyjon’s app, you can also track and compare your test results.
Diabetes is a serious complication and can also lead to many other severe problems. It usually occurs during the early 40s. Therefore, blood sugar levels should be maintained in the suggested range. One should always keep a check on his blood glucose concentration.